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USTED ESTA EN : Inicio    Artículos    MORTALIDAD NEONATAL EN VENEZUELA CON ESPECIAL ATENCIÓN A LAS INFECCIONES - Salud - Artículos
Salud : MORTALIDAD NEONATAL EN VENEZUELA CON ESPECIAL ATENCIÓN A LAS INFECCIONES
on 2012/2/13 9:48:40 (10850 reads)

La información epidemiológica actualizada acerca de las causas de morbilidad y mortalidad es necesaria para que los países puedan implementar decisiones e intervenciones certeras en salud pública.




En nuestro país las estadísticas sanitarias siguen siendo deficientes a pesar de la introducción de la tecnología informática, la digitalización de los registros, la introducción de paquetes estadísticos inteligentes; aún así el sub-registro es la norma, así como la deficiente calidad de las historias clínicas, a lo que se le suma el retraso oficial para publicar y diseminar la información. El Anuario de Mortalidad del MPPS tiene un retraso de 3 años.

La muerte de un número elevado de neonatos en el hospital Central de Maracay, ocurridos a partir de la primera semana de febrero de 2012, presumiblemente por infecciones nosocomiales, despertó el debate sobre la situación epidemiológica de la mortalidad neonatal en Venezuela, el reclamo de los cuidados antenatales y neonatales que las madres y los niños deben recibir y la necesidad de aplicar medidas de prevención primaria destinadas a reducir los factores de riesgo que la facilitan.

La mortalidad infantil y la mortalidad neonatal como indicadores de salud

A nivel mundial, cada año se suceden millones de muertes en niños menores de 5 años, la mayoría en países pobres y por causas prevenibles, si bien la tendencia ha sido el progreso de este indicador de salud pública mediante el compromiso de los Estados en alcanzar la Meta 5 de los Compromisos del Milenio.

La mortalidad neonatal es definida por la OMS como las muertes ocurridas entre el momento del parto y el día 27. Es un índice que refleja el nivel de desarrollo de los pueblos, la calidad de la atención tanto prenatal como del recién nacido. El conocimiento de la morbilidad y de las tasas de mortalidad neonatal tiene una gran implicación en la programación sanitaria de un país.

La oportunidad de supervivencia en los primeros 28 días está influenciada por factores ambientales, sociales y congénitos, que pueden causar nacimientos prematuros o malformaciones. Son conocidos los predictores de muerte neonatal como la edad gestacional y el bajo peso al nacer, sin embargo, estos están influenciados por variables denominadas intermedias tales como la historia obstétrica de la madre (edad o control prenatal) y aspectos sociales.

Dependiendo de las tasas globales de mortalidad, los países con alta mortalidad infantil, un 20 % de la mortalidad ocurre en el período neonatal mientras que en los de baja mortalidad infantil  este porcentaje supera el 50 % de las muertes ocurren en recién nacidos.

Se estima que en las comunidades de bajos recursos 24 % de las muertes ocurren por infecciones respiratorias, 29 % por asfixia en el parto, 24 % por complicaciones de la prematuridad y un 7 % por otras infecciones, que incluyen tétanos.

La mortalidad infantil y neonatal en Venezuela

Al disgregar la mortalidad Infantil (entre 0 y 364 días), en neonatal y postneonatal, se observa que ambas han presentado en el período entre 1990 y 2006, una tendencia sostenida al descenso. La ecuación de la recta indica que la tasa de mortalidad neonatal disminuirá lentamente -0,2091 por mil nacidos vivos registrados por año y la postneonatal 0,298 por 1.000 nacidos vivos registrados por año.

Si desea leer el texto completo del documento puede descargarlo aquí: &

Contacto: aipop@aipop.org / www.aipop.org                                        Doctores José Félix Oletta L. y Ana C. Carvajal 

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